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Cek Fakta: Hoaks UNICEF Kirim Pesan Berantai Berisi Pencegahan Virus Corona

Liputan6.com, Jakarta - Kabar tentang organisasi UNICEF yang memberikan tips untuk mencegah penularan virus corona atau Covid-19 beredar di media sosial.

Kabar ini disebarkan akun Facebook Nurwanti Listya Dewi pada 7 Maret 2020. Akun ini menyebarkan pesan berantai yang diklaim dari UNICEF.

Berikut narasinya:

*INFORMASI PENTING*1. Corona merupakan virus berukuran besar. Diameter virus ini 400-500 micro, sehingga masker jenis apa pun dapat mencegah masuknya ke tubuh kita dan tidak perlu menggunakan masker yang mahal.

2. Virus corona tidak melayang di udara, tapi menempel pada benda, sehingga penularannya tidak melalui udara.

3. Apabila menempel di permukaan logam, virus corona dapat hidup selama 12 jam. Mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air sudah cukup.

4. Apabila menempel di kain, virus corona dapat hidup selama 9 jam, sehingg mencuci pakaian atau menjemurnya di bawah sinar matahari selama 2 jam sudah cukup untuk membunuhnya.

5. Apabila menempel di tangan, virus corona dapat hidup selama 10 menit, sehingga menyediakan _*sterilizer*_ berbahan dasar alkohol cukup untuk berjaga-jaga.

6. Apabila berada di udara bersuhu 26-27 °C, virus corona akan mati sehinga tidak hidup di daerah panas . Di samping itu, minum air panas dan berjemur di bawah sinar matahari sudah cukup sebagai pencegahan.Menghindari makanan dan minuman dingin termasuk ice cream sangat penting.

7. Berkumur sampai dalam dengan air hangat dan garam akan membunuh virus corona di sekitar anak tekak (telak - Jw.) dan mencegahnya masuk kedalam paru-paru.

Dengan mengikuti petunjuk ini cukup untuk mencegah virus corona.

*UNICEF*

Mohon sebarkan informasi ini untuk mencegah timbulnya ketakutan yang tidak perlu.

Konten yang disebarkan akun Facebook Nurwanti Listya Dewi telah 6.100 kali dibagikan dan mendapat 298 komentar warganet.

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Penelusuran Fakta

Cek fakta Liputan6.com menelusuri kebenaran tentang pesan berantai yang diklaim dari UNICEF. Penelusuran dilakukan menggunakan situs pencari google dengan memasukkan kata kunci "Message on Coronavirus from Unicef". Hasilnya terdapat beberapa artikel yang membantah pesan berantai tersebut.

Satu di antaranya yang dimuat situs thequint.com dengan judul artikel "Message on Coronavirus (COVID-19) Neither From UNICEF Nor Accurate".

With 28 confirmed cases of novel coronavirus in India and the global number climbing to 93,000, there is a deluge of misinformation around the outbreak.

CLAIM

Against this backdrop, an unverified message claiming to be from UNICEF (United Nations International Children Education Fund) is doing rounds on various social media platforms.

The message is being widely shared on Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter.

WHAT WE KNOW SO FAR

The Quint can confirm that the guidelines mentioned in the viral message are misleading and have not been issued by UNICEF. You can find the list of UNICEF guidelines on coronavirus here.

Now, let us asses the veracity of each claim.

1. The virus does not settle in the air, but on the ground, so it is not transmitted by air: While the viral message claims that coronavirus is not transmitted by air and settles on the ground, according to WHO findings, coronavirus can spread from person to person through small droplets, when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person.

Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. People can also catch COVID-19 if they breathe in droplets that are coughed out or exhaled by a person with COVID-19. So far, there is no information about where the virus settles.

2. Coronavirus when it falls on a metal surface, will live for 12 hours, so washing hands with soap and water well enough:

Quint FIT spoke to Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan, Director of Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, who informed us that washing hands and using hand sanitisers are important precautions one can take to prevent coronavirus infection. He also mentioned that coronavirus cannot survive on a surface for more than 12 hours.

3. If the virus is exposed to a temperature of 26-27 ° C. it will be killed, as it does not live in hot regions:

The fact that coronavirus cannot survive in warmer temperatures has not been established yet. Professor Laxminarayan says, “Several coronavirus cases have been reported in tropical countries. However, as respiratory pathogens usually disappear in summers, the same is possible with coronavirus. We’ll have to wait to find that out.”

4. Drinking hot water and sun exposure will do the trick and staying away from ice cream and eating cold is important:

There is no study yet which suggests that drinking hot water can help contain coronavirus or avoiding frozen food or ice creams can reduce the risks of contracting the infection. Quint Fit had earlier debunked this claim.

5. Coronavirus is large in size, with a cell diameter of 400-500 micro, so any mask that prevents its entry does not need to be used by pharmacists to trade muzzles:

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), usage of masks does not particularly help in preventing the contraction of coronavirus. A person needs to wear a mask only if they are taking care of an infected patient.

Dalam artikel tersebut dijelaskan pesan berantai yang terlanjur viral itu bukan berasal dari UNICEF. Pesan berantai tersebut diduga berasal dari sumber yang tidak terverifikasi.

Artikel tersebut juga menyertakan pedoman pencegahan Covid-19 yang dikeluarkan UNICEF. Pedoman tersebut diunggah situs resmi UNICEF, unicef.org dengan judul "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): What parents should know".

What is a ‘novel’ coronavirus?

A novel coronavirus (CoV) is a new strain of coronavirus.

The disease caused by the novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as ‘2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV.’

The COVID-19 virus is a new virus linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of common cold.

How does the COVID-19 virus spread?

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with respiratory droplets of an infected person (generated through coughing and sneezing), and touching surfaces contaminated with the virus. The COVID-19 virus may survive on surfaces for several hours, but simple disinfectants can kill it.

What are the symptoms of coronavirus?

Symptoms can include fever, cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia or breathing difficulties. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. 

These symptoms are similar to the flu (influenza) or the common cold, which are a lot more common than COVID-19. This is why testing is required to confirm if someone has COVID-19. It’s important to remember that key prevention measures are the same – frequent hand washing, and respiratory hygiene (cover your cough or sneeze with a flexed elbow or tissue, then throw away the tissue into a closed bin). Also, there is a vaccine for the flu – so remember to keep yourself and your child up to date with vaccinations.

How can I avoid the risk of infection?

Here are four precautions you and your family can take to avoid infection:

Should I wear a medical mask?

The use of a medical mask is advised if you have respiratory symptoms (coughing or sneezing) to protect others. If you don’t have any symptoms, then there is no need to wear a mask. 

If masks are worn, they must be used and disposed of properly to ensure their effectiveness and to avoid any increased risk of transmitting the virus. 

The use of a mask alone is not enough to stop infections and must be combined with frequent hand washing, covering sneezes and coughs, and avoiding close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms (coughing, sneezing, fever).

Does COVID-19 affect children?

This is a new virus and we do not know enough yet about how it affects children or pregnant women. We know it is possible for people of any age to be infected with the virus, but so far there have been relatively few cases of COVID-19 reported among children. The virus is fatal in rare cases, so far mainly among older people with pre-existing medical conditions.

What should I do if my child has symptoms of COVID-19?

Seek medical attention, but remember that it’s flu season in the Northern Hemisphere, and symptoms of COVID-19 such as cough or fever can be similar to those of the flu, or the common cold – which are a lot more frequent.

Continue to follow good hand and respiratory hygiene practices like regular handwashing, and keep your child up to date with vaccinations – so that your child is protected against other viruses and bacteria causing diseases.

As with other respiratory infections like the flu, seek care early if you or your child are having symptoms, and try to avoid going to public places (workplace, schools, public transport), to prevent spread to others.

What should I do if a family member displays symptoms?

You should seek medical care early if you or your child has a fever, cough or difficulty breathing. Consider calling ahead to tell your health care provider if you have traveled to an area where COVID-19 has been reported, or if you have been in close contact with someone with who has traveled from one of these areas and has respiratory symptoms.

Should I take my child out of school?

If your child is having symptoms, seek medical care, and follow the instructions from the health care provider. Otherwise, as with other respiratory infections like the flu, keep your child well rested at home while symptomatic, and avoid going to public places, to prevent spread to others.

If your child isn’t displaying any symptoms such as a fever or cough – and unless a public health advisory or other relevant warning or official advice has been issued affecting your child’s school – it’s best to keep your child in class.

Instead of keeping children out of school, teach them good hand and respiratory hygiene practices for school and elsewhere, like frequent handwashing (see below), covering cough or sneeze with a flexed elbow or tissue, then throwing away the tissue into a closed bin, not touching their eyes, mouths or noses if they haven’t properly washed their hands.

What is the best way to wash hands properly?

Step 1: Wet hands with running water

Step 2: Apply enough soap to cover wet hands

Step 3: Scrub all surfaces of the hands – including back of hands, between fingers and under nails – for at least 20 seconds.

Step 4: Rinse thoroughly with running water

Step 5: Dry hands with a clean cloth or single-use towel

Wash your hands often, especially before eating; after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; and going to the bathroom. 

If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water, if hands are visibly dirty.

What precautions should I take for my family if we travel?

Anyone planning a trip overseas should always check the travel advisory for their destination country for any restrictions on entry, quarantine requirements on entry, or other relevant travel advice.

In addition to taking standard travel precautions, and in order to avoid being quarantined or denied re-entry into your home country, you are also advised to check the latest COVID-19 update on the International Air Transport Association website, which includes a list of countries and restriction measures.

While traveling, all parents should follow standard hygiene measures for themselves and their children: Wash hands frequently or use an alcohol-based sanitizer with at least 60 per cent alcohol, practice good respiratory hygiene (cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze and immediately dispose of the used tissue) and avoid close contact with anyone who is coughing or sneezing. In addition, it is recommended that parents always carry a hand sanitizer, pack of disposable tissues, and disinfecting wipes.

Additional recommendations include: Clean your seat, armrest, touchscreen, etc. with a disinfecting wipe once inside an aircraft or other vehicle. Also use a disinfecting wipe to clean key surfaces, doorknobs, remote controls, etc at the hotel or other accommodation where you and your children are staying.

Can pregnant women pass coronavirus to unborn children?

At this time, there is not enough evidence to determine whether the virus is transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, or the potential impact this may have on the baby. This is currently being investigated. Pregnant women should continue to follow appropriate precautions to protect themselves from exposure to the virus, and seek medical care early, if experiencing symptoms, such as fever, cough or difficulty breathing.

Is it safe for a mother to breastfeed if she is infected with coronavirus?

All mothers in affected and at-risk areas who have symptoms of fever, cough or difficulty breathing, should seek medical care early, and follow instructions from a health care provider. 

Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the insignificant role of breastmilk in the transmission of other respiratory viruses, the mother can continue breastfeeding, while applying all the necessary precautions.

For symptomatic mothers well enough to breastfeed, this includes wearing a mask when near a child (including during feeding), washing hands before and after contact with the child (including feeding), and cleaning/disinfecting contaminated surfaces – as should be done in all cases where anyone with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 interacts with others, including children.  

If a mother is too ill, she should be encouraged to express milk and give it to the child via a clean cup and/or spoon – all while following the same infection prevention methods.

What is UNICEF doing to help?

As of 1 March, UNICEF had delivered nearly $1 million worth of supplies including masks, protective gloves, and goggles for health workers in China.  

UNICEF is also working with the World Health Organization, the National Health Commission and other partners to strengthen risk communication and tackle misinformation so that children, pregnant women and their families know how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This includes the development of online training modules for health workers, and FAQs and guidance for pregnant women and children. 

On 17 February, UNICEF appealed for US$42.3 million to scale up support for efforts to contain the COVID-19 virus outbreak. The preliminary funds will support UNICEF’s work to reduce the transmission of the virus, including by strengthening risk communication and tackling misinformation.

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Kesimpulan

Pesan berantai tentang pencegahan terhadap virus corona yang diklaim dari UNICEF ternyata tidak benar. Narasi yang disebarkan oleh akun Facebook Nurwanti Listya Dewi tidak sesuai dengan fakta sebenarnya.

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Tentang Cek Fakta Liputan6.com

Liputan6.com merupakan media terverifikasi Jaringan Periksa Fakta Internasional atau International Fact Checking Network (IFCN) bersama puluhan media massa lainnya di seluruh dunia. 

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Kami juga bekerjasama dengan 21 media nasional dan lokal dalam cekfakta.com untuk memverifikasi berbagai informasi yang tersebar di masyarakat.

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